In recent years, historians and the American public have increasingly debated whether or not the crimes that have been committed against Native Americans in the United States constitute genocide. Although the Humboldt and Del Norte region was conquered by Euro-Americans later than the rest of the US, genocidal crimes were prevalent within the counties of Humboldt and Del Norte in Northwestern California. The genocide committed against the Indigenous Peoples there were carried out by vigilante groups with the support of the California state government as well as the US federal government. I argue not only that genocide, as defined by the UN, was committed against Native Americans in these counties, but also that genocide has had a lasting effect on the Native Americans in the area through continued oppression. These groups include the Tolowa, Wiyot, Yurok, Karuk, and Hupa.
Rowley, Gavin. 2020. "Defining Genocide in Northwestern California: The Devastation of Humboldt and Del Norte County’s Indigenous Peoples." Humboldt Journal of Social Relations 1 (42): 87-105.