The problem states: How many seats in the U. S. House of Representatives does each state get?

Articles and Essays

Articles and essays for students and teachers alike, Including a mathematical lesson for launching into apportionment, the basic divisor method for reapportionment from 1790-1840, and a liberal arts perspective of congressional apportionment.

History of Congressional Apportionment

Congressional Apportionment is given here in an historical form in a series of essays based on censuses from the years 1970-2000.

Resources for Teachers

Resources written for classroom teachers of apportionment, including the two math skills needed for understanding apportionment and a mathematical description of the various methods of congressional apportionment in U.S. history.

Census Apportionment Data

You may download an Excel spreadsheet for the apportionment populations for the listed decades.

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Articles and Essays

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An Average Lesson, Charles M. Biles

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Congressional Apportionment: A Liberal Arts Perspective, Charles M. Biles

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The Congressional Apportionment Problem Based on the Census 1790-1840: Basic Divisor Methods, Charles M. Biles

History of Congressional Apportionment

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Congressional Apportionment Based on the Census: 1790, Charles M. Biles

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Congressional Apportionment Based on the Census: 1800-1840, Charles M. Biles

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Congressional Apportionment Based on the Census: 1850-1890, Charles M. Biles

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Congressional Apportionment Based on the Census: 1900-1930, Charles M. Biles

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Congressional Apportionment Based on the Census: 1940-2000, Charles M. Biles

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The History of Congressional Apportionment: 1790-2000, Charles M. Biles

Resources for Teachers

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Teaching Apportionment, Charles M. Biles

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The History of the Congressional Apportionment Problem through a Mathematical Lens, Charles M. Biles and Shannon Guerrero

U.S. Census Apportionment Data

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Census 1790, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1800, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1810, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1820, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1830, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1840, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1850, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1860, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1870, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1880, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1890, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1900, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1910, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1920, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1930, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1940, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1950, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1960, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1970, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1980, United States Census Bureau

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Census 1990, United States Census Bureau

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Census 2000, United States Census Bureau

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Census 2010, United States Census Bureau