Publication Date



College of Natural Resources & Sciences



Document Type



Territorial hummingbirds often display aggressive behaviors to gain access to high-quality food sources. Previous studies have found that hummingbirds prefer to feed from feeders that have sugar concentrations that are slightly higher than regular flower nectar concentrations (20-25% sugar). However, to maximize their energy intake, hummingbirds may not always choose artificial feeders with the highest sugar concentration available to them. I used artificial feeders with varying sugar concentrations to determine if hummingbirds display more aggression and/or spend more time at feeders based on their sugar concentrations.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.