Graduation Date

Spring 2023

Document Type



Master of Science degree with a major in Kinesiology, option Exercise Science

Committee Chair Name

Dr. Young Sub Kwon

Committee Chair Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Second Committee Member Name

Dr. Whitney Ogle

Second Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Third Committee Member Name

Dr. Justus Ortega

Third Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff


YMCA, Bench press, Bench press test, YMCA-BPT, Muscular endurance, Reference values

Subject Categories



The Young Men’s Christian Association Bench Press Test (YMCA-BPT) is accepted as an assessment of absolute dynamic upper-body muscular endurance. However, the normative values for the YMCA-BPT, is over 30 years old and outdated. The normative values utilized for comparisons of performance were reported with no information on the total number and characteristics of the participants beyond age and gender.

The purpose of this study was to establish and compare the absolute and relative reference values for upper-body muscular endurance using the YMCA-BPT in men and women.

The YMCA-BPT was performed by 420 college-aged individuals (237 men; 183 women). Repetition volume, volume load (kg), and volume ratio were measured and calculated. Data was analyzed separately to provide percentile values for men and women. The descriptive statistics were calculated in mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum. A t-test for independent means was used to verify the differences between men and women. Significance for all the statistical tests was set at p

The results demonstrate significant sex differences between relative and absolute values, with males having higher values for most characteristics. Additionally, 1RM is the most accurate predictor of performance for the YMCA-BPT, showing that though the YMCA-BPT was generally thought to be a test for muscular endurance, it may also be used to test muscular strength. Reference values for absolute and relative muscular endurance are presented categorized by sex. The findings of this study offer a useful starting point of reference values for both men and women.

Citation Style



Thesis/Project Location


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.