Graduation Date

Summer 2017

Document Type



Master of Science degree with a major in Kinesiology, option Teaching/Coaching

Committee Chair Name

Chris Hopper

Committee Chair Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Second Committee Member Name

Sean Healy

Second Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Subject Categories



Objective: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the literature to determine the effects of physical activity and physical education interventions on children with downs syndrome. This research design highlights the missing gaps in the research currently available to determine whether recommendations in the field of adapted physical education are valid.

Methods and Design: The present study utilized a meta-analytic research design to sort and select both published and un-published studies to quantify previous research by synthesizing study outcomes related to physical activity and physical education and children with Down syndrome. Standard meta-analytic procedures using inclusion and exclusion criteria, literature search, coding procedures and statistical methods were used to identify and synthesize 24 studies and 43 independent samples.

Results: Using a random effects model the treatment effect size for all target outcomes was small to moderate (g=-0.33; SE= 0.11; 95% C.I.= -0.55,-0.11; p ≤= 0.001) and represented about one third of a standard deviation advantage for the control groups. Review of heterogeneity statistics determined a significant heterogeneous distribution (Q = 74.75, p ≤= 0.001; I² = 69.23) making it essential that to explain the within study variance through an outcome analysis.

Conclusion: An outcome analysis produced several trends, only one study performed by P.E teacher, outcomes in psychomotor domain only, one third standard deviation advantage for control groups in all three outcomes. Suggested lack of data focusing on the effects of physical activity interventions, learning strategies, current and best practices in the adapted physical education context. Future research should focus on in classroom environment effects In the psychomotor, cognitive and affective domain to provide recommendations for best practices.

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