Graduation Date

Fall 2022

Document Type



Master of Science degree with a major in Kinesiology, option Exercise Science

Committee Chair Name

Young Sub Kwon

Committee Chair Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Second Committee Member Name

Rock Braithwaite

Second Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Third Committee Member Name

Andrew Petersen

Third Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff


The barbell back squat is a simple and common resistance training exercise that is used to evaluate muscular fitness. Its use as an evaluative method for muscular fitness in the general population is limited due to a lack of published reference values for this free weight exercise in the general population. This study presents reference values for the back squat muscular fitness in healthy active young adults (aged 19-29). This data is made of 399 subjects (51% male/49% female). Mean ±SD for participants in anthropometric data were 23.1±2.8 years of age, 73.0±12.9 kg weight, 170.6±9.4 cm height, and 25.0±3.4 body mass index. Subjects performed a squat strength test using 1RM test. A muscular endurance test was done using 65% of 1RM for four sets, performing repetitions to failure, with 30 second’s rest. 6 relative muscular fitness metrics were calculated using subjects body mass, lean body mass, and body mass to the two-thirds power. Absolute and relative data was expressed with the use of percentile categories. Overall mean absolute and relative strength corrected for BM, mean absolute and relative load volume corrected for BM were 213.8±72.6, 1.3±0.4, 2143.2±751.0, and 34.5±11.3. Men performed better than women in 8 of the 9 metrics representing absolute and relative strength and endurance. However, relative squat endurance corrected for lean body mass showed no difference between men and women. Future research may benefit from older demographics (30-69 years) and larger sample sizes.

Citation Style


Available for download on Saturday, December 09, 2023