Graduation Date

Summer 2022

Document Type



Master of Science degree with a major in Environmental Systems, option Energy, Technology, and Policy

Committee Chair Name

Arne Jacobson

Committee Chair Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Second Committee Member Name

Peter Alstone

Second Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Third Committee Member Name

Sintana Vergara

Third Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Subject Categories

Environmental Resources Engineering


This thesis explored the feasibility of electrifying a food market in an urban city in Nigeria with a hybrid biogas-powered mini-grid. Under the Energizing Economies Initiative of the Rural Electrification Agency of Nigeria, nine markets in the country currently receive constant access to electricity via hybrid mini-grid systems. As a majority of these systems are diesel-solar-battery systems, this thesis explored the use of biogas generators as a substitute for diesel generators in hybrid mini-grids for food markets. A fruit and vegetable market in Ketu, Lagos was used as a case study for the research. The research for this thesis was carried out using various research methods which include literature reviews, phone-call interviews, and quantitative modeling analysis using HOMER Pro and Microsoft Excel software.

The analysis focused on two load types determined by two energy solutions, cooling as a service (CaaS) and power as a service (PaaS), proposed for the market. The simulated load in the CaaS case was 277 kWh/day, while that in the PaaS case was 581 kWh/day. The results obtained indicate the technical feasibility, economic viability, and environmental benefit of generating electricity using a hybrid biogas mini-grid. The optimal system design for achieving this was a Biogas-Solar-Battery system. The cost of energy for this system was found to be $0.242/kWh and $0.169/kWh for the CaaS and PaaS solutions, respectively. The use of biogas fuel for electricity generation in this system diverted 185 kg and 107 kg of biomass from the landfill in the CaaS and PaaS solution respectively. This reduction in biomass waste at the landfill reduces methane emissions. For a diesel-solar-battery system, fuel costs, which accounted for 79% of the annual O&M cost of the system, resulted in a high COE of $0.270/kWh for the PaaS solution. Hence, biogas was found to be a cheaper substitute for diesel fuel.

Lastly, the cost of energy of a biogas-only system for the PaaS solution was $0.169/kWh. Although a biogas only system has a greater greenhouse gas reduction potential compared to a hybrid biogas solution, the reliability of such a system is not guaranteed as it is dependent on one energy source.

Citation Style



Thesis/Project Location