Graduation Date

Fall 2021

Document Type



Master of Science degree with a major in Kinesiology, option Exercise Science

Committee Chair Name

Taylor Bloedon

Committee Chair Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Second Committee Member Name

Rock Braithwaite

Second Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Third Committee Member Name

Jill Anderson

Third Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Fourth Committee Member Name

Kari Pilolla

Fourth Committee Member Affiliation

Community Member or Outside Professional

Subject Categories



Cardiometabolic disease (CMD) remains the leading cause of death nationally. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF) is one of the primary risk factors for CMD. Women are particularly vulnerable to developing CMD due to hormonal changes during and after menopause that increase IAF. Excess IAF has deleterious effects on the body, increasing systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, leading to CMD. This systematic review and meta-analyses examined current research related to consumption of whole foods high in anthocyanins, their impact on oxidative stress and inflammation, and the medium and amount of anthocyanin delivery that yields the most benefits to women at risk for CMD. This meta-analysis included 47 studies extracted using PRISMA 2020 guidelines. Overall, effect sizes were not significant when exploring obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress outcomes. Subgroup analyses did yield some significant results, however, small reporting values and large heterogeneity statistics rendered most outcome effect sizes unreliable. Future research should consider standardizing anthocyanin treatment protocols to allow readers to draw conclusions and make research-based recommendations more easily.

Citation Style