Graduation Date

Summer 2021

Document Type



Master of Science degree with a major in Kinesiology, option Exercise Science

Committee Chair Name

Dr. Justus Ortega

Committee Chair Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Second Committee Member Name

Dr. Jill Anderson

Second Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Third Committee Member Name

Dr. Brian Blackburn

Third Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Subject Categories



Compared to road running, those who run off-road face many unique challenges that impact their running mechanics and energetics. Current literature fails to address how the turns encountered on off-road paths might influence running performance. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of turn angle and frequency on the energetic cost of running. Twelve young adult runners (21±3 years) who run ≥ 30 miles/week and who can run < 22 min for 5 kilometers participated in this study. All subject performed four trials: one straight path trial and three turning paths trials with combined spatial frequencies (ξ- cycles per meter) and amplitudes (meters) of 0.083SF:4AMP, 0.167SF:4AMP, and 0.167SF:2AMP, respectively. Using breath by breath portable gas analysis, we measured V̇O2 and V̇CO2 in the last 2 minutes of each 6-minute trial to determine metabolic power (Watt/kg). Statistical analysis utilized a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc paired-sampled T-test to evaluate differences in energetic costs between paths. Compared to a virtually straight path, runners on average consumed 14% and 27% more metabolic energy on a path with turns of 0.167:2 (p=.002) and 0.167:4 (p

Citation Style


Available for download on Tuesday, July 14, 2026

Included in

Biomechanics Commons


Thesis/Project Location