Graduation Date

Spring 2019

Document Type



Master of Arts degree with a major in Psychology, option Academic Research

Committee Chair Name

Amber Gaffney

Committee Chair Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Second Committee Member Name

Christopher Aberson

Second Committee Member Affiliation

HSU Faculty or Staff

Third Committee Member Name

Heather Smith

Third Committee Member Affiliation

Community Member or Outside Professional


All social groups have a prototype that provides a guideline of behaviors and attitudes that embody what it means to be a member of that group (Hohman et al., 2017). Men as a gender group are no exception to the use of a prototype as a basis for evaluating group members (Marques & Páez, 1994). When a man feels like a non-prototypical group member (i.e., peripheral) he is more likely to derogate deviant ingroup members compared to outgroup members. This is because peripheral group members are more likely to engage in behaviors aimed at achieving and maintaining a positive social value for this group (men) compared to the outgroup (women; Doosje & Ellemers, 1997). Research has found that cisgender men perceive transgender women to be effeminate gay men (Gazzola & Morrison, 2014). Therefore, men should perceive transgender woman as ingroup deviants. As a result, peripheral men should derogate transgender women more than transgender men and other cisgender men compared to prototypical men. The current study (N = 181) found that men made to feel peripheral who viewed a transgender woman target or a cisgender man target were more likely to negatively evaluate the target than men made to feel prototypical. There was no difference in evaluations of transgender man targets between peripheral and prototypical men. These results have important implications for men’s treatment of transgender women such as the negative effects of stigmatization on transgender women and the potential for more severe outcomes for transgender women in response to men’s threatened masculinity.

Citation Style